Sep 14, 2020

Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization: A Tool for Building Maps of Hydration Water #DNPNMR #ODNP #Review

Franck, John M. “Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization: A Tool for Building Maps of Hydration Water.” Biophysical Journal 118, no. 3, Supplement 1 (February 7, 2020): 487a.

Coating the surface of every macromolecule or macromolecular assembly, one finds a hydration layer composed of water molecules that move typically between 3× and 10× slower than water molecules in bulk water. The interaction between the water molecules in the hydration layer and the macromolecules contributes to the structural stability and sometimes the function of, e.g., proteins and lipid bilayers. Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is an emerging electron-spin nuclear-spin (EPR-NMR) double-resonance tool that has demonstrated a capability of measuring the translational dynamics of water in the hydration layer. Here we discuss our efforts on two fronts: First, we design a scheme for measuring the thickness of the hydration layer and the effect of confinement on translational dynamics, as measured by ODNP, with controlled, appropriately labeled reverse micelle systems. Second, we describe the development of an a priori technique for converting ODNP measurements into a 3D “map” of hydration layer properties in dynamic room temperature samples that explore an ensemble of structures. This latter effort focuses on transmembrane model systems and utilizes the modern structure-prediction tool Rosetta in a fashion analogous to successful efforts to predict NMR order parameters. Particular focus is given to improving the quality and automation of the ODNP measurement, as well as validating predicted ensemble structures against both continuous wave EPR and NMR Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement (PRE) data.