Can, T.V., et al., Time domain DNP with the NOVEL sequence. J Chem Phys, 2015. 143(5): p. 054201.
We present results of a pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) study at 0.35 T (9.7 GHz/14.7 MHz for electron/(1)H Larmor frequency) using a lab frame-rotating frame cross polarization experiment that employs electron spin locking fields that match the (1)H nuclear Larmor frequency, the so called NOVEL (nuclear orientation via electron spin locking) condition. We apply the method to a series of DNP samples including a single crystal of diphenyl nitroxide (DPNO) doped benzophenone (BzP), 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA) doped polystyrene (PS), and sulfonated-BDPA (SA-BDPA) doped glycerol/water glassy matrices. The optimal Hartman-Hahn matching condition is achieved when the nutation frequency of the electron matches the Larmor frequency of the proton, omega1S = omega0I, together with possible higher order matching conditions at lower efficiencies. The magnetization transfer from electron to protons occurs on the time scale of approximately 100 ns, consistent with the electron-proton couplings on the order of 1-10 MHz in these samples. In a fully protonated single crystal DPNO/BzP, at 270 K, we obtained a maximum signal enhancement of epsilon = 165 and the corresponding gain in sensitivity of epsilonT1/TB (1/2)=230 due to the reduction in the buildup time under DNP. In a sample of partially deuterated PS doped with BDPA, we obtained an enhancement of 323 which is a factor of approximately 3.2 higher compared to the protonated version of the same sample and accounts for 49% of the theoretical limit. For the SA-BDPA doped glycerol/water glassy matrix at 80 K, the sample condition used in most applications of DNP in nuclear magnetic resonance, we also observed a significant enhancement. Our findings demonstrate that pulsed DNP via the NOVEL sequence is highly efficient and can potentially surpass continuous wave DNP mechanisms such as the solid effect and cross effect which scale unfavorably with increasing magnetic field. Furthermore, pulsed DNP is also a promising avenue for DNP at high temperature.