Corzilius, B., et al., Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of H, C, and Co in a Tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) Crystalline Lattice Doped with Cr(III). J Am Chem Soc, 2014.
The study of inorganic crystalline materials by solid-state NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the low sensitivity of heavy nuclei. However, these materials often contain or can be prepared with paramagnetic dopants without significantly affecting the structure of the crystalline host. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is generally capable of enhancing NMR signals by transferring the magnetization of unpaired electrons to the nuclei. Therefore, the NMR sensitivity in these paramagnetically doped crystals might be increased by DNP. In this paper we demonstrate the possibility of efficient DNP transfer in polycrystalline samples of [Co(en)3Cl3]2.NaCl.6H2O (en = ethylenediamine, C2H8N2) doped with Cr(III) in varying concentrations between 0.1 and 3 mol %. We demonstrate that 1H, 13C, and 59Co can be polarized by irradiation of Cr(III) with 140 GHz microwaves at a magnetic field of 5 T. We further explain our findings on the basis of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the Cr(III) site and analysis of its temperature-dependent zero-field splitting, as well as the dependence of the DNP enhancement factor on the external magnetic field and microwave power. This first demonstration of DNP transfer from one paramagnetic metal ion to its diamagnetic host metal ion will pave the way for future applications of DNP in paramagnetically doped materials or metalloproteins.